西安交通大学

F3:财务会计

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课程概述

财务会计(Paper F3 Financial Accounting)是会计学专业开设的一门必修的专业基础课程, 是学习其他专业课程的入门课。适用对象为会计专业本科生,没有先修课程的要求。

F3财务会计是ACCA考试第一阶段的课程。本课程的目的是培养学生对于财务会计知识的理解,包括财务会计准则、相关会计科目账户建立,以及准确财务信息的提供。主要包括六部分内容:(1)财务报告的目的和范围;(2)财务信息的质量特征和会计基础;(3)复式记账法;(4)交易事项记录;(5)准备试算平衡表;(6)编制财务报表。该课程是后续课程《财务报告(Paper F7 Financial Reporting)》和《公司报告(Paper P2 Corporate Reporting )》的基础。

本课程以原理的说明为主,由易到难,由浅入深地介绍会计学的基本原理,会计的基本方法和基本程序,突出会计要素的确认,计量,记录和报告。学习财务会计的主要目的是培养学生的会计观念和会计意识;掌握会计核算的基本理论和基本方法,熟练运用各会计核算方法。使学生懂得做好会计工作,对加强经济管理的重要意义。

通过本课程的学习,学生应该能够:编制基本的财务报表;了解会计基本原理。具体方面有:分别就独资企业、合伙企业以及有限责任公司编制各自的财务报表;学会基本会计记账流程;掌握会计基本概念和惯例;能够读懂财务报表;了解会计准则。


授课目标
主要目的是培养学生对于财务会计知识的理解,包括财务会计准则、相关会计科目账户建立,以及准确财务信息的提供。本课程是后续课程《财务报告(Paper F7 Financial Reporting)》和《公司报告Paper P2 Corporate Reporting )》的基础。
证书要求

练习及作业50%,期末考试50%。完成课程学习,成绩合格,可以获得合格证书。

预备知识

授课大纲

英文名称:Financial Accounting

学时:32            学分:2

适用对象:会计专业本科生

先修课程:无

使用教材及参考书:

Financial Accounting, BPP Professional Education, 2015年9月, ISBN 978-1-4453-7027-9

一、 课程性质、目的和任务

性质:必修课

目的:目的是让学生掌握基本会计知识和技能为下一阶段财务报告(F7)的学习打下基础。

任务:通过本课程的学习,学生应该能够:编制基本的财务报表;了解会计基本原理。具体方面有:分别就独资企业、合伙企业以及有限责任公司编制各自的财务报表;学会基本会计记账流程;掌握会计基本概念和惯例;能够读懂财务报表;了解会计准则。

二、 课程评价方式:

练习及作业50%,期末考试50%

三、 教学内容及要求

A  THE CONTEXT AND PURPOSE OF FINANCIAL REPORTING

1. The scope and purpose of, financial statements for external reporting

a) Define financial reporting - recording, analysing and summarising financial data.

b) Identify and define types of business entity - sole trader, partnership, limited liability company.

c) Recognise the legal differences between a sole trader, partnership and a limited liability company.

d) Identify the advantages and disadvantages of operating as a limited liability company, sole trader or partnership.

e) Understand the nature, principles and scope of financial reporting.

2. Users' and stakeholders’ needs

a) Identify the users of financial statements and state and differentiate between their information needs.

3. The main elements of financial reports

a) Understand and identify the purpose of each of the main financial statements.

b) Define and identify assets, liabilities, equity, revenue and expenses.

4. The regulatory framework

a) Understand the role of the regulatory system including the roles of the IFRS Foundation (1FRSF), the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), the IFRS Advisory Council (IFRS AC) and the IFRS Interpretations Committee (IFRS IC).

b) Understand the role of International Financial Reporting Standards.

5. Duties and responsibilities of those charged with governance

a) Explain what is meant by governance specifically in the context of the preparation of financial statements

b) Describe the duties and responsibilities of directors and other parties covering the preparation of the financial statements.

B THE QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION

1.  The qualitative characteristics of financial information

a) Define, understand and apply qualitative characteristics:

i) Relevance

ii) Faithful representation

iii) Comparability

iv) Verifiability

v) Timeliness

vi) Understandability

b) Define, understand and apply accounting concepts:

i) Materiality

ii) Substance over form

iii) Going concern

iv) Business entity concept

v) Accruals

vi) Fair presentation

vii) Consistency

C  THE USE OF DOUBLE-ENTRY AND ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS

1.  Double-entry book-keeping principles including the maintenance of accounting records

a) Identify and explain the function of the main data sources in an accounting system.

b) Outline the contents and purpose of different types of business documentation, including:quotation, sales order, purchase order, goods received note, goods despatched note, invoice, statement, credit note, debit note, remittance advice, receipt.

c) Understand and apply the concept of double-entry accounting and the duality concept.

d) Understand and apply the accounting equation.

e) Understand how the accounting system contributes to providing useful accounting information and complies with organisational policies and deadlines.

f) Identify the main types of business transactions e.g. sales, purchases, payments, receipts.

2.  Ledger accounts, books of prime entry and journals

a) Identify the main types of ledger accounts and books of prime entry, and understand their nature and function.

b) Understand and illustrate the uses of journals and the posting of journal entries into ledger accounts.

c) identify correct journals from given narrative.

d) Illustrate how to balance and close a ledger account,

D  RECORDING TRANSACTIONS AND EVENTS

1.  Sales and purchases

a)  Record sale and purchase transactions in ledger accounts.

b)  Understand and record sales and purchase returns,

c)  Understand the general principles of the operation of a sales tax.

d)  Calculate sales tax on transactions and record the consequent accounting entries.

e)  Account for discounts allowed and discounts received.

2.  Cash

a) Record cash transactions in ledger accounts

b) Understand the need for a record of petty cash transactions.

3.  Inventory 

a) Recognise the need for adjustments for inventory in preparing financial statements.

b) Record opening and closing inventory.

c)  Identify the alternative methods of valuing inventory

d) Understand and apply the IASB requirements for valuing inventories.

e) Recognise which costs should be included in valuing inventories.

f) Understand the use of continuous and period end inventory records.

g) Calculate the value of closing inventory using FIFO (first in, first out) and AVCO (average cost) - both periodic weighted average and continuous weighted average.

h) Understand the impact of accounting concepts on the valuation of inventory.

i) Identify the impact of inventory valuation methods on profit and on assets.

4. Tangible non-current assets

a)  Define non-current assets.

b)  Recognise the difference between current and non-current assets.

c)  Explain the difference between capital and revenue items.

d)  Classify expenditure as capital or revenue expenditure,

e)  Prepare ledger entries to record the acquisition and disposal of non-current assets.

f)  Calculate and record profits or losses on disposal of non-current assets in the statement of profit or loss including part exchange transactions.

g)  Record the revaluation of a non-current asset in ledger accounts, the statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income and in the statement of financial position.

h)  Calculate the profit or loss on disposal of a revalued asset.

i)  Illustrate how non-current asset balances and movements are disclosed in financial statements.

j)  Explain the purpose and function of an asset register.

5.  Depreciation

a)  Understand and explain the purpose of depreciation.

b)  Calculate the charge for depreciation using straight line and reducing balance methods.

c)  Identify the circumstances where different methods of depreciation would be appropriate.

d)  Illustrate how depreciation expense and accumulated depreciation are recorded in ledger accounts.

e)  Calculate depreciation on a revalued non-current asset including the transfer of excess depreciation between the revaluation surplus and retained earnings.

f)  Calculate the adjustments to depreciation necessary if changes are made in the estimated useful life and/or residual value of a non-current asset.

g)  Record depredation in the statement of profit or loss and statement of financial position.

6.  Intangible non-current assets and amortisation

a)  Recognise the difference between tangible and intangible non-current assets.

b) Identify types of intangible assets.

c) Identify the definition and treatment of "research costs" and "development costs" in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards.

d) Calculate amounts to be capitalised as development expenditure or to be expensed from given information.

e) Explain the purpose of amortisation.

f) Calculate and account for the charge for amortisation.

7. Accruals and prepayments

a) Understand how the matching concept applies to accruals and prepayments.

b) Identify and calculate the adjustments needed for accruals and prepayments in preparing financial statements.

c) Illustrate the process of adjusting for accruals and prepayments in preparing financial statements.

d) Prepare the journal entries and ledger entries for the creation of an accrual or prepayment.

e) Understand and identify the impact on profit and net assets of accruals and prepayments.

8. Receivables and payables

a) Explain and identify examples of receivables and payables.

b) Identify the benefits and costs of offering credit facilities to customers.

c) Understand the purpose of an aged receivables analysis.

d) Understand the purpose of credit limits.

e) Prepare the bookkeeping entries to write off an irrecoverable debt.

f) Record an irrecoverable debt recovered. 

g)  Identify the impact of irrecoverable debts on the statement of profit or loss and on the statement of financial position.

h)  Prepare the bookkeeping entries to create and adjust an allowance for receivables.

i)  Illustrate how to include movements in the allowance for receivables in the statement of profit or loss and how the closing balance of the allowance should appear in the statement of financial position.

j)  Account for contras between trade receivables and payables.

k)  Prepare, reconcile and understand the purpose of supplier statements.

l)  Classify items as current or non-current liabilities in the statement of financial position.

9.  Provisions and contingencies

a) Understand the definition of “provision", "contingent liability” and “contingent asset”.

b) Distinguish between and classify items as provisions, contingent liabilities or contingent assets.

c) Identify and illustrate the different methods of accounting for provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets.

d) Calculate provisions and changes in provisions.

e) Account for the movement in provisions.

f) Report provisions in the final accounts.

10.  Capital structure and finance costs

a) Understand the capital structure of a limited liability company including:

i) Ordinary shares

ii) Preference shares (redeemable and irredeemable)

iii) Loan notes.

b) Record movements in the share capital and share premium accounts.

c) Identify and record the other reserves which may appear in the company statement of financial position.

d) Define a bonus (capitalisation) issue and its advantages and disadvantages.

e) Define a rights issue and its advantages and disadvantages.

f) Record and show the effects of a bonus (capitalisation) issue in the statement of financial position.

g) Record and show the effects of a rights issue in the statement of financial position.

h) Record dividends in ledger accounts and the financial statements.

i) Calculate and record finance costs in ledger accounts and the financial statements.

j) Identify the components of the statement of changes in equity.

E  PREPARING A TRIAL BALANCE

1. Trial balance

a) Identify the purpose of a trial baiance.

b) Extract ledger balances into a trial balance.

c) Prepare extracts of an opening trial balance.

d) Identify and understand the limitations of a trial balance.

2. Correction of errors

a) Identify the types of error which may occur in bookkeeping systems.

b) Identify errors which would be highlighted by the extraction of a trial balance.

c) Prepare journal entries to correct errors.

d)  Calculate and understand the impact of errors on the statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income and statement of financial position.

3. Control accounts and reconciliations

a) Understand the purpose of control accounts for accounts receivable and accounts payable.

b) Understand how control accounts relate to the double-entry system.

c) Prepare ledger control accounts from given information.

d) Perform control account reconciliations for accounts receivable and accounts payable.

e) Identify errors which would be highlighted by performing a control account reconciliation.

f) Identify and correct errors in control accounts and ledger accounts.

4. Bank reconciliations

a) Understand the purpose of bank reconciliations.

b) Identify the main reasons for differences between the cash book and the bank statement.

c) Correct cash book errors and/or omissions.

d) Prepare bank reconciliation statements.

e) Derive bank statement and cash book balances from given information.

f) Identify the bank balance to be reported in the final accounts.

5. Suspense accounts

a) Understand the purpose of a suspense account,

b) Identify errors leading to the creation of a suspense account.

c) Record entries in a suspense account.

d) Make journal entries to clear a suspense account.

F  PREPARING BASIC FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

1.  Statements of financial position

a) Recognise how the accounting equation, accounting treatments (as stipulated within sections D, E and examinable documents) and business entity convention underlie the statement of financial position.

b) Understand the nature of reserves.

c) Identify and report reserves in a company statement of financial position.

d) Prepare a statement of financial position or extracts as applicable from given information using accounting treatments as stipulated within sections D, E and examinable documents.

e) Understand why the heading retained earnings appears in a company statement of financial position.

2. Statements of profit or loss and other comprehensive income

a) Prepare a statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income or extracts as applicable from given information using accounting treatments as stipulated within section D, E and examinable documents.

b) Understand how accounting concepts apply to revenue and expenses.

c) Calculate revenue, cost of sales, gross profit, profit for the year, and total comprehensive income from given information.

d) Disclose items of income and expenditure in the statement of profit or loss.

e) Record income tax in the statement of profit or loss of a company including the under and overprovision of tax in the prior year.

f)  Understand the interrelationship between the statement of financial position and the statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income.

g)  Identity items requiring separate disclosure on the face of the statement of profit or loss.

3.  Disclosure notes

a) Explain the purpose disclosure notes

b) Draft the following disclosure notes

i)  Non current assets mending tangible and in tangible assets

ii)  Provisions

iii)  Events after the reporting period

iv)  inventory

4.  Events after the reporting period

a) Define an event after the reporting period in accordance with international Financial Reporting Standards.

b) Classify events as adjusting or non-adjusting.

c) Distinguish between how adjusting and non-adjusting events are reported in the financial statements.

5  Statements of cash flows (excluding partnerships)

a) Differentiate between profit and cash flow.

b) Understand the need for management to control cash flow.

c) Recognise the benefits and drawbacks to users of the financial statements of a statement of cash flows.

d) Classify the effect of transactions on cash flows.

e) Calculate the figures needed for the statement of cash flows including:

i) Cash flows from operating activities

ii) Cash flows from investing activities

iii) Cash flows from financing activities

f) Calculate the cash from operating activities using the indirect and direct method.

g) Prepare statements of cash flows and extracts from statements of cash flows from given information.

h) Identify the treatment of given transactions in a company's statement of cash flows.

6.  Incomplete records

a)  Understand and apply techniques used in incomplete record situations:

i)  Use of accounting equation

ii) Use of ledger accounts to calculate missing figures

iii) Use of cash and/or bank summaries

iv) Use of profit percentages to calculate missing figures.


参考资料

使用教材及参考书:

Financial Accounting, BPP Professional Education, 2015年9月, ISBN 978-1-4453-7027-9

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