洛阳师范学院

语言学导论

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课程概述

一、课程性质

语言学导论是英语专业的一门专业理论课程,主要探讨语言的起源和语言内部各层次的基本关系,以及语言与思维、文化、社会、语境、文学等外部因素的关系。

二、教学任务与基本要求

作为英语专业本科阶段一门重要的理论课程,语言学导论服务于学习者的专业发展及人文素养的养成,其教学任务是:

1.介绍语言基本知识,以及语言内部各层次的基本关系。

2.讲授语言的发展、变异及其与思维、文化等的关系。

3.讨论语言学与教学的关系。

4.介绍当代语言学中的重要流派及其对本学科发展的贡献。

语言学导论的教学目标:

1.使学习者了解语言的本质、起源,英语的内部结构、功能及其历史发展规律。

2.使学习者了解人类语言研究的丰富成果,提高对社会、人文、经济、科技以及个人修养等方面重要性的认识。

3.培养学习者的语言意识,发展学习者的理性思维。


授课目标
1.使学习者了解语言的本质、起源,英语的内部结构、功能及其历史发展规律。 2.使学习者了解人类语言研究的丰富成果,提高对社会、人文、经济、科技以及个人修养等方面重要性的认识。 3.培养学习者的语言意识,发展理性思维。
证书要求

按百分制计分,其中60分至84分为合格,85分至100分为优秀。

评分方案:

1.完成课程形成性评价各项要求占60%。

2.期末开放性考试成绩占40%。

证书:

1.成绩在60分以上,84分一下颁发普通学员证书。

2.成绩在85分以上颁发优秀学员证书。

预备知识
  1. 英语语音相关基础知识

  2. 英语词学相关基础知识

  3. 英语语法相关基础知识

  4. 中西文化异同相关基础知识

  5. 英语语言发展相关基础知识

授课大纲


     Chapter One  Invitations to Linguistics

 

Teaching hours: 4

Teaching requirements

Help the students to get the general ideas of language. The students are supposed to mainly know of what language is, the design features and functions of language, what linguistics is as well as the branches and the important distinctions in linguistics.

Key points of teaching

    the sense of language and linguistics; the functions of language; the main branches of linguistics; the important distinctions in linguistics

Teaching contents

Part I  2 teaching hours

1.1 Why study language?

1.2 What is language?

1.3 Design features of language

   1.3.1  Arbitrariness

   1.3.2 Duality

   1.3.3 Creativity

   1.3.4 Displacement

1.4 Origin of language

Part II  2 teaching hours

1.5 Functions of language

   1.5.1 Informative

   1.5.2 Interpersonal function

   1.5.3  Performative

   1.5.4 Emotive function

   1.5.5  Phatic communion

   1.5.6 Recreational function

   1.5.7 Metalingual function

Part III  2 teaching hours

1.6 What is linguistics?

1.7 Main branches of linguistics

   1.7.1  Phonetics

   1.7.2  Phonology

   1.7.3 Morphology

   1.7.4 Syntax

   1.7.5 Semantics

   1.7.6  Pragmatics

1.8 Macrolinguistics

1.9 Important distinctions in linguistics

   1.9.1 Descriptive vs. prescriptive

   1.9.2 Synchronic vs. diachronic

   1.9.3 Langue & parole

   1.9.4 Competence and performance

   1.9.5 Etic vs. Emic

Further reading

1. Foundations of General Linguistics. Atkinson, Martin, David Killy & Iggy Roca. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1982.

2. Language: Introductory Readings. Clark, Virginia P. (et al. eds.) New York: St. Martin’s Press. 1985.

3. Linguistics for Language Learners. Hartly, Anthony F. Kent: Multiplex Techniques Ltd. 1982.

4. Linguistics. Widdons, H. G. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1996.

Questions and exercises

What is language?

What is linguistics?

Please illustrate the functions of language.

Please tell in details the important distinctions in linguistics.

 

Chapter Two  Speech Sounds

 

Teaching hours: 4

Teaching requirements

Introduce to the students the knowledge of speech sounds. The students are supposed to have a good command of the classification and description of speech sounds, the phoneme theory and the phonological process.

Key points of teaching

    the classification and description of speech sounds; coarticulation and phonetic transcription; the phoneme theory

Teaching contents

Part I  2 teaching hours

2.1 Speech production and perception

2.2 Speech organs

2.3 Segments, divergences, and phonetic transcription

Part II  2 teaching hours

2.4 Consonants

   2.4.1 Consonants and vowels

   2.4.2 Consonants

   2.4.3 Manners of articulation

   2.4.4 Places of articulation

   2.4.5 The consonants of English

2.5 Vowels

   2.5.1 The criteria of vowel description

   2.5.2 The theory of cardinal vowels

   2.5.3 Vowel glides

   2.5.4 The vowels of RP

2.6 Coarticulation and phonetic transcription

   2.6.1 Coarticulation

   2.6.2 Broad and narrow transcriptions

Part III  2 teaching hours

2.7 Phonological analysis

2.8 Phonemes and allophones

   2.8.1 Minimal pairs

   2.8.2 The phoneme thoery

   2.8.3 Allophones

2.9 Phonological process

   2.9.1 Assimilation

   2.9.2 Phonological processes and phonological rules

   2.9.3 Rule ordering

2.10 Distinctive features

2.11 Syllables

Further reading

1. Phonetics: the Science of Speech. Ball, M. & J. Rahilly. London: Edward Arnold. 1999.

2. An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, 2nd. Clark, John & Colin Yallop. Oxford: Black well. 1995.

3. Understanding Phonology. Gussenhoven, Carlos & Haike Jacobs. London: Edward Arnold. 1998.

Questions and exercises

Define the following terms:

articulatory phonetics; coarticulation; phoneme; allophone; manners of articulation; place of articulation; complementary distribution; assimilation

 

Chapter Three  Lexicon

 

Teaching hours: 2

Teaching requirements

Introduce to the students the senses, identification and classification of words. The students are to have the general ideas of what word is, and how word is formed.

Key points of teaching

senses of “word”; identification of words; classification of words; the formation of word; lexical change

Teaching contents

Part I  2 teaching hours

3.1 What is word?

   3.1.1 Three senses of “word”

   3.1.2 Identification of words

   3.1.3 Classification of words

Part II  2 teaching hours

3.2 The formation of word

   3.2.1 Morpheme and morphology

   3.2.2 Types of morphemes

   3.2.3 Inflection and word formation

   3.2.4 The counterpoint of phonology and morphology

Part III  2 teaching hours

3.3 Lexical change

   3.3.1 Lexical change proper

   3.3.2 Phonological change

   3.3.3 Morpho-syntactical change

   3.3.4 Semantic change

   3.3.5 Orthographic change

Further reading

1. An Introduction to Modern English Word-formation. Adams, V. Lodon: Longman. 1973.

2. English Word-formation. Bauer, L. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1983.

3. Lexical Phrases and Language Teaching. Nattinger, J. R. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1992.

4. The Lexicogrammar of Adjectives: A Systemic Functional Approach to Lexis. Washington, D. C. Cassell. 1998.

Questions and exercises

Define the following terms

morpheme; compound; inflection; affix; derivation; root; allomorph; stem; bound morpheme; free morpheme; lexeme; lexicon; grammatical word; lexical word; closed-class word; open-class word; blending; loanword; loanblend; loanshift; back-formation; assimilation; dissimilation

 

                        Chapter Four  Syntax

 

Teaching hours: 2

Teaching requirements

    Introduce to the students the general knowledge about syntax. The students are to learn about the traditional approach, the structural approach, the generative approach and the functional approach.

Key points of teaching

    the traditional approach; the structural approach; the generative approach; the functional approach

Teaching contents

Part I  2 teaching hours

4.1 The traditional approach

   4.1.1 Number, gender and case

   4.1.2 Tense and aspect

   4.1.3 Concord and government

4.2 The structural approach

   4.2.1 Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations

   4.2.2 Immediate constituent analysis

   4.2.3 Endocentric and exocentric constructions

Part II  2 teaching hours

4.3 The generative approach

   4.3.1 Deep and surface structures

   4.3.2 The standard theory and after

   4.3.3 Government, binding, etc.

Part III  2 teaching hours

4.4 The functional approach

   4.4.1 Functional sentence perspective

   4.4.2 Systemic-functional grammar

Further reading

1. Syntax in Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication. 4th ed. Akmajian, A., Demers, R.A., Farmer, A. K. & Harnish, R. M. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. 1995.

2. Language Structure and Language Functions, in J. Lyons ed. New Horizons in Linguistics, 140-165. Halliday, M. A. K. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 1970

Questions and exercises

1. Why is it important to know the relations a sign has with others, such as syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations?

2. What is the criterion used in IC analysis?

3. In what ways is IC analysis better than traditional parsing?

4. What are the problems in IC analysis?

5. Why is sub-categorization introduced into the standard theory?

6. In what sense is the analysis of a sentence in terms of theme and rheme functional?

 

                       Chapter Five  Meaning

 

Teaching hours: 2

Teaching requirements

Introduce to the students the meanings of “meaning”. The students are to get the general ideas of sense relations, componential analysis and the integrated theory.

Key points of teaching

the referential theory; sense relations; componential analysis; the integrated theory; logical semantics

Teaching contents

Part I  2 teaching hours

5.1 Meanings of “meaning”

5.2 The referential theory

Part II  2 teaching horus

5.3 Sense relations

   5.3.1 Synonymy

   5.3.2 Antonymy

   5.3.3 Hyponymy

5.4 Componential analysis

Part III  2 teaching hours

5.5 Sentence meaning

   5.5.1 An integrated theory

   5.5.2 Logical semantics

Further reading

1. Semantics: The Study of Meaning, 2nd ed. Leech, G. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 1981.

2. Semantics: A New Outline, 2nd. Ed. Palmer, F. R. Cambridge: Cambridge  University Press. 1981.

3. Semantics. Saeed, j. I. Oxford: Blackwell. 1997.

4. An Integrated Theory of Linguistics Descriptions. Katz, J. J. & Postal, P. M. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. 1964.

Questions and exercises

Define the following terms

conceptual meaning; denotation; connotation; reference; sense; synonymy; complementary antonymy; gradable antonymy; converse antonymy; relational opposites; hyponymy; superordinate; semantic component; compositionality; selection restriction; propositional logic; proposition; predicate logic

 

Chapter Six  Language Processing in Mind

 

Teaching hours: 4

Teaching requirements

    Introduce to the students language comprehension, discourse interpretations and language production. The students are to have the main ideas of language processing in mind.

Key points of teaching

    language comprehension; discourse interpretations; language production

Teaching contents

Part I  2 teaching hours

6.1 Introduction

   6.1.1 Evidence

   6.1.2 Current issues

6.2 Language comprehension

   6.2.1 Word recognition

   6.2.2 Lexical ambiguity

   6.2.3 Syntactic processing

   6.2.4 Semantics and sentence memory

   6.2.5 Basic processes in reading

Part II  2 teaching hours

6.3 Discourse/text interpretation

   6.3.1 Schemata and inference drawing

   6.3.2 Story structure

Part III  2 teaching hours

6.4 Language production

   6.4.1 Speech production

   6.4.2 Written language

Further reading

1. Language and Mind: Psycholinguistics, in N. E. Collinge (ed.) An Encyclopaedia of Language. Aitchison, J. Routledge. 1990.

2. The Articulate Mammal: An Introduction to Psycholinguistics. Aitchison, J. Routledge. 1998.

3. Psycholinguistics. Garman, Mi. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1990.

4. Psycholinguistics: Psychology, Linguistics and the Study of Natural Language. Kess, J. F. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 1992.

5. An Introduction to Psycholinguistics. Steinberg, D. D. London: Longman. 1993.

Questions and exercises

Define the following terms

assimilation theory; cohort theory; context effect; frequency effect; inference in text; immediacy assumption; language perception; language comprehension; language production; lexical ambiguity; parsing; psycholinguistics; schemata in text; story structure

 

 

Chapter Seven  Language, Culture and Society

 

Teaching hours: 2

Teaching requirements

    Introduce to the students the relations of language and culture, language and society. The students are to mainly get the ideas of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and sociolinguistics.

Key points of teaching

    Sapir-Whorf hypothesis; culture in language teaching classroom; language and society

Teaching contents

Part I  3 teaching hours

7.1 Language and culture

   7.1.1 How does language relate to culture?

   7.1.2 More about the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

   7.1.3 Case studies

   7.1.4 To which extent do we need culture in our linguistic study?

   7.1.5 Culture in language teaching classroom

Part II  3 teaching hours

7.2 Language and society

   7.2.1 How does language relate to society?

   7.2.2 A situationally and socially variationist perspective

   7.2.3 What should we know more about sociolinguistics?

   7.2.4 What implications can we get from sociolinguistics?

7.3 Summary

Further reading

1. Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution. Berlin, Brent and Paul Kay. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1991.

2. Sociolinguistics Today: International Perspectives. Bolton, Kengsley & Helen Kwok (ed). London: Routledge. 1992.

3. Readings in the Sociology of Language. Fishman, Joshua. The Hague: Mouton. 1999.

4. Language and Social Context: Selected Readings. Giglioli, P. P. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 1972.

Questions and exercises

Try to explain the following terms in your own words

communicative competence; gender difference; linguistic determinism; linguistic relativity; linguistic sexism; sociolinguistics of language; sociolinguistics of society; variationist linguistics

 

Chapter Eight  Language in Use

 

Teaching hours: 4

Teaching requirements

    Introduce to the students the speech act theory, the theory of conversational implicature and post-Gricean theories. The students are to have a good command of the theory of illocutionary act, the cooperative principle and the main branches of post-Gricean developments.

Key points of teaching

    speech act theory; the theory of conversational implicature; post-Gricean developments

Teaching contents

Part I  2 teaching hours

8.1 Speech act theory

   8.1.1 Performatives and constatives

   8.1.2 A theory of the illocutionary act

Part II  2 teaching hours

8.2 The theory of conversational implicature

   8.2.1 The cooperative principle

   8.2.2 Violation of the maxims

   8.2.3 Characteristics of implicature

Part III  2 teaching hours

8.3 Post-Gricean developments

   8.3.1 Relevance theory

   8.3.2 The Q- and R-principles

   8.3.3 The Q-, I- and M-principles

Further reading

1. How to Do Things with Words. 2nd ed. Austin, J. L. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1975.

2. Logic and Conversation. In Cole, P. & Morgan, J. L. Syntax and Semantics 3: Speech acts. Grice, H. P. New   York: Academic Press. 1975.

3. A Neo-Gricean Pragmatic Theory of Anaphora. Journal of Pragmatics. Huang, Yan. Beijing: Foreign languages Teaching and Research Press. 1991.

4. Pragmatics. Levinson, S. C. Cambridge: Cambridege University. 1983.

5. Pragmatics: An Introduction. Mey, J. Oxford: Blackwell. 1993.

Qeustions and exercises

Define the following terms

performative; constatives; locutionary act; illocutionary act; perlocutionary act; cooperative principle; conversational implicature; entailment; ostensive communication; relevance; Q-principle; R-principle

 

 

 

 

              Chapter Nine  Language and Literature

 

Teaching hours: 2

Teaching requirements

    Focus on the study of linguistic features related to literary style. The students are to get a general idea of the close relationship between language and literature.

Key points of teaching

    general features of the literary language; the language in poetry; the language in fiction; the language in drama

Teaching contents

Part I  2 teaching hours

9.1 Theoretical background

9.2 Some general features of the literary language

   9.2.1 Foregrounding and grammatical form

   9.2.2 Literal language and figurative language

   9.2.3 The analysis of literary language

Part II  2 teaching hours

9.3 The language in poetry

   9.3.1 Sound patterning

   9.3.2 Different forms of sound patterning

   9.3.3 Stress and metrical patterning

   9.3.4 Conventional forms of metre and sound

   9.3.5 The poetic functions of sound and metre

   9.3.6 How to analyse poetry?

Part III  2 teaching hours

9.4 The language in fiction

   9.4.1 Fictional prose and point of view

   9.4.2 Speech and thought presentation

   9.4.3 Prose style

   9.4.4 How to analyse the language of fiction?

9.5 The language in drama

   9.5.1 How should we analyse drama?

   9.5.2 Analysing dramatic language

   9.5.3 How to analyse dramatic texts?

Further reading

1. Discourse and Literature. Cook, G. Oxford University Press and Shanghai Foreign Languages Education Press. 1994.

2. Style in Fiction. Leech, G. and M. Short. London: Longman. 1981.

3. Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose. Short, M. London: Longman. 1996.

4. A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry. Leech, G. London: Longman. 1969.

5. Practical Stylistics. Widdowson, H. G. Oxford University Press and Shanghai Foreign Languages Education Press. 1992.

Questions and exercises

1. Define the following terms

third-person narrator; I-narrator; direct speech; indirect speech; narrator’s representation of speech acts; narrator’s representation of speech; free indirect speech; narrator’s representation of thought; indirect thought; free indirect thought; direct thought

2. Discussion: What is the difference between direct thought and indirect thought?

 

Chapter Ten  Language and Computer

 

Teaching hours: 2

Teaching requirements

    Introduce to the students the relationship between language and computer. The students are to learn about computer-assisted language learning, machine translation, corpus linguistics and information retrieval.

Key points of teaching

    CAL; CAI; CALL; MT quality; corpus linguistics; information retrieval

Teaching contents

Part I  2 teaching hours

10.1 Computer-assisted language learning

10.1.1 CAL/CAI VS CALL

10.1.2 Phases of CALL development

10.1.3 Technology

10.2 Machine translation

10.2.1 History of development

10.2.2 Research methods

10.2.3 MT quality

10.2.4 MT and the Internet

10.2.5 Spoken language translation

10.2.6 MT and human translation

Part II  2 teaching hours

10.3 Corpus linguistics

10.3.1 Definition

10.3.2 Criticisms and the revival of corpus linguistics

10.3.3 Concordance

10.3.4 Text encoding and annotation

10.3.5 The roles of corpus data

Part III  2 teaching hours

10.4 Information retrieval

10.4.1 Scope defined

10.4.2 An information retrieval system

10.4.3 Three main areas of research

10.5 Mail and news

Further reading

1. Corpus Linguistics. Biber, Douglas, Susan Conrad, Randi Reppen. Cambridge: Cambridge  University Press. 1998.

2. The Computational Analysis of English. Garside, R., Leech G. and Sampson, G. London: Longman. 1987.

3. Computers and Written Texts. Butler, C. S. Oxford: Blackwell. 1992.

4. Computers in English Language Teaching and Research. Leech, G. and Candli, C. N. Harlow: Longman. 1986.

Questions and exercises

1. What are the four phases in the course of CALL development?

2. Is the linguist approach in MT research successful? How to solve the problem?

3. What is your view about the relation between MT and human translation?

4. What do you think about Chomsky’s criticism and the revival of corpus linguistics?

5. What is the difference between data retrieval and information retrieval?

6. What is the best way to illustrate an information retrieval system?

 

Chapter Eleven

Linguistics and Foreign Language Teaching

 

Teaching hours: 4

Teaching requirements

    Introduce to the students the relation of linguistics to foreign language teaching, various linguistic views in language learning and teaching, syllabus design, error analysis and testing. The students are to get the ideas of the various linguistic views and their significance in language learning and teaching, how to design syllabus and how to set a test.

Key points of teaching

    various linguistic views in language learning and teaching; syllabus design; error analysis; testing

Teaching contents

Part I  2 teaching hours

11.1 The relation of linguistics to foreign language teaching

11.2 Various linguistic views and their significance in language learning and teaching

11.2.1 Traditional grammar

11.2.2 Structuralist linguistics

11.2.3 Transformational-Generative linguistics

11.2.4 Functional linguistics

11.2.5 The theory of communicative competence

Part II  2 teaching hours

11.3 Syllabus design

11.3.1 What is syllabus?

11.3.2 Major factors in syllabus design

11.3.3 Types of syllabus

11.4 Language learning

11.4.1 Grammar and language learning

11.4.2 Input and language learning

11.4.3 Interlanguage in language learning

Part III  2 teaching hours

11.5 Error analysis

11.5.1 Errors, mistakes, and error analysis

11.5.2 Attitudes to errors

11.5.3 Procedure of error analysis

11.5.4 Contrastive analysis and non-contrastive analysis

11.6 Testing

11.6.1 Two different approaches to testing

11.6.2 Types of test

11.6.3 Requirements of a good test

11.6.4 Test content and test form

11.6.5 Marking and interpretation of scores

Further reading

1. Readings for Applied Linguistics, Vol. 1-4. Allen, J. P. B. and Corder, S. P. eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1973.

2. The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Ellis, R. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1994.

3. SLA Research and Language Teaching. Ellis, R. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1997.

4. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Krashen, S. D. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 1982.

Questions and exercises

1. Currently, what is the general understanding of the role of grammar in language learning?

2. According to this chapter, in what ways can linguistics contribute to the research in language learning?

3. Distinguish between errors and mistakes.

4. Differentiate aptitude, proficiency, achievement and diagnostic tests.

 

Chapter Twelve

 Theories and Schools of Modern Linguistics

 

Teaching hours: 4

Teaching requirements

    Introduce to the students the main theories and schools of modern linguistics. The students are to get the general ideas of the Prague School, the London School, American Structuralism and Transformational-Generative Grammar.

Key points of teaching

    the Prague School; the London School; American Structuralism; Transformational-Generative Grammar

Teaching contents

Part I  1 teaching hour

12.1 The Prague School

12.1.1 Introduction

12.1.2 Phonology and phonological oppositions

12.1.3 Functional Sentence Perspective

Part II  1 teaching hour

12.2 The London School

12.2.1 Malinowski’s theories

12.2.2 Firth’s theories

12.2.3 Halliday and Systemic-Functional Grammar

Part III  1 teaching hour

12.3 American Structuralism

12.3.1 Early period: Boas and Sapir

12.3.2 Bloomfield’s theory

12.3.3 Post-Bloomfieldian linguistics

Part IV  1 teaching hour

12.4 Transformational-Generative Grammar

12.4.1 The innateness hypothesis

12.4.2 What is a generative grammar?

12.4.3 The Classical Theory

12.4.4 The Standard Theory

12.4.5 The Extended Standard Theory

12.4.6 Later theories

12.4.7 Main features of TG Grammar

Further reading

1. Aspects of Language. Bolinger, D. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 1968.

2. Syntactic Structures. Chomsky, N. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1957.

3. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Chomsky, N. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 1965.

Questions and exercises

1. Why is Saussure hailed as the father of modern linguistics?

2. What are the three important points of the Prague  School?

3. What is the Prague School best known for?

4. What is the tradition of the London School?

5. What is special about Systemic-Functional linguistics?

6. How is behaviourist psychology related to linguistics?


 


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赵冬生

赵冬生

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